Wednesday, August 31, 2022

Lack of Religion is not the Presence of Science

Recent polls from the Pew Trust and Gallup assert that 30% of Americans self-identify as Not Religious along the spectrum from Atheist to Do Not Attend Services, even as 60% of Americans say that God created us directly or may guide our evolution. Moreover, a Marist poll commissioned by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History revealed that 17% of college graduates believe that the Earth goes around the Sun in one day.

"Measuring Religion in Pew Research Center's
American Trends Panel" 
Pew Research Center 14 January 2021 

"Science Knowledge Quiz" 
Pew Research Center
28 March 2019

Richard Hofstadter found the source of our anti-intellectual tradition in Jacksonian Democracy of the late 1820s, after the passing of the Revolutionary generation. (Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both died on 4 July 1826.) Entrenched ignorance is a tradition running 200 years. Granted that exceptions stand out.

James A. Garfield is credited with an original proof of the Pythagorean Theorem in 1876, but it had little to do with his election to the Presidency in 1880. Woodrow Wilson served as president of Princeton University. Herbert Hoover earned his degree in mining engineering from Stanford (1895). Although Jimmy Carter completed a degree in nuclear engineering at the US Naval Academy, John F. Kennedy was the last president who could be called an intellectual. 


Nearly 3 in 10 Doubt Leaders Value Scientific Expertise



Why Evidence is not Enough

The Science of Liberty 

The Success of the Weird People 

Gregory M. Browne’s Necessary Factual Truths 



Monday, August 29, 2022

A New Microscope

To support my emotional buy-in to my most important medications, I responded to an email from AmScope. I shopped for a binocular microscope for about six months and engaged in online chat with other hobbyists regarding the options for makes and models. I took the general advice from Oliver Kim at Microbobe Hunter ( and accepted this offer of a good-enough microscope that will serve for three years of careful use.


AmScope B270. 4x, 10x, 40X, and
100X (immersion) objectives
with10x oculars in Siedentopf head;
with extended warranty $286.

Based on my experience in astronomy, my prejudice was for a Zeiss model, costing ten times as much. The fact is that I do not work professionally at that level. All I want to do is view prepared slides of human histology specimens. Comparing and contrasting what is offered across the hobby market, right now, my engagement was best served with a modest upgrade to my current inventory. Before this purchase, my best instruments came from Goodwill Online, three of them for under $150 total.  I also inherited from a neighbor in Austin a very nice – but very used – Tasco set with specimens and et ceteras.


So, this is an incremental improvement. And as with astronomy and backyard stargazing, my viewing is only in support of other involvements at a different level. I also have two sets of prepared slides, very general including bugs and plants. I am now shopping online at professional laboratory companies for human histology specimens. 





Biobash: Chamber Replicates Success 

Before Darwin 

From Texas to the Moon with John Leonard Riddell 


Sunday, August 28, 2022


With a hospital a mile away and schools all around, my northern sky here is worse than it was in Austin. Except for finding Messier 81 three times in ten or more attempts, nothing near the Big Dipper is available even with the aid of a computerized “go to” mount. However, being out at 5:00 AM, I found Cassiopeia readily and was pretty sure that I could make out the smudge of Messier 31 off the sharper vertex of the W. And I did. 

This morning, between 5:18 and 5:38, I viewed the Andromeda Galaxy with an Explore Scientific 102-mm f/6.47 achromatic doublet refractor because that one was closest to the door. The oculars were a 14-mm Meade 4000 series 82-degree, a Nagler 7-mm Ploessl, both of those with and without a basic GSO 2X Barlow. So, variously 47X and 94X with more or less eye relief.


If I did not know in advance what I was looking at, I would have classified this as a globular cluster. There was some shape to the smear, longer than round, with some central sparkle. It seemed to have a halo but that could have been atmospheric effect. The centrality of the bright core came out with averted vision, looking away left, right, up, and down, changing between left and right eyes. Several times, I moved a bright star to the center and refocused more tightly. Overall, it was more like Messier 4 which is also spread out and not like Messier 22 which is a tighter circle of light.

Addendum: 02 September 2022. Orion 70mm refractor with Meade 25 mm Modified Achromat and with Celestron 32 mm Super Ploessel Wide Angle. Nominally "clear" skies but with much residual moisture from current rainy season. It took some doing from 0340 to 0420. I found M31 naked eye and with Bushnell 12x42 binocular and then needed several attempts to locate it with the telescope. As above but not as large, it looked like a globular cluster, brighter in the circular center with indistinct fading left and right.




The Andromeda Galaxy

Viewing Mars 

Recent Astronomical Observing 

The Map that Changed the World 

Forbidden Planet 

When Worlds Collide 

Tuesday, August 16, 2022


I learned the poem in seventh grade English. The our teacher, Mr. Hart, said that he held a thesis that it was actually translated from Latin and originated with Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and that name was also attached to the poem as it appeared on the blackboard. I never found any support for the claim, though the sentiment is clearly aligned to the philosophy of the emperor philosopher and soldier who was portrayed by Sir Alec Guiness in Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 


“Invictus” by William Ernest Henley


Out of the night that covers me,

Black as the Pit from pole to pole,

I thank whatever gods may be

For my unconquerable soul.


In the fell clutch of circumstance

I have not winced nor cried aloud.

Under the bludgeonings of chance

My head is bloody, but unbowed.


Beyond this place of wrath and tears

Looms but the horror of the shade,

And yet the menace of the years

Finds, and shall find me, unafraid.


It matters not how strait the gate,

How charged with punishments the scroll,

I am the master of my fate;

I am the captain of my soul.


Previously on NecessaryFacts

The Cure for a Failing Empire 

The Influence of Ayn Rand's Objectivism 

The Scientific Method

The Scientific Method (revisited)  


Wednesday, August 10, 2022

My Armadillocon Presentations

I attend Armadillocon because it serves writers with workshops and panel discussions and science presentations. As a technical writer, I try to bring the reader into the story. Otherwise, without engagement, they will not follow the plans, policies, or procedures. I try to make technical writing lively by varying the language with synonyms, pacing passive voice into the active for contrast, setting the stage with a strong, meaningful introduction, and including plenty of pictures (each worth 1000 words). 


Interior of Lindsay's space "balloon"
by Brad W. Foster for this presentation

Enthralled by Armadillocon 39 (2017), I volunteered to present at the next convention in 2018. At Armadillocon 40, my slideshow was “From Texas to the Moon with John Leonard Riddell.” I proposed Riddell as the first working scientist to publish a science fiction story. Orrin Lindsay’s Plan of Aerial Navigation, with a Narrative of His Explorations in the Higher Regions of the Atmosphere, and His Wonderful Voyage Round the Moon! (Rea's Power Press, New Orleans, 1847). Riddell taught chemistry at the Louisiana Medical College (later Tulane University) and while there he invented the binocular microscope. Because Riddell also served as the chief melter of the New Orleans mint, I sold his story to The Numismatist (vol 127 no. 4, April 2017). I also presented it at an ANA convention in Dallas on 5 March 2016 and the story is here on my blog at


For Armadillocon 41 in 2019, my talk on Friday night 2 August was on “The Future of Money” (on this blog here: This was also my presentation for an ANA convention, for which I was awarded a stipend by the Sundman/Littleton Coin Lecture Series 14 August 2019, for the Chicago venue. Over the years, the ANA honored several of my publications with literary awards, first, second, and third place, depending. And I wrote a monthly column for them from 2005 to 2011 in addition to accepting assignments from the editor for special feature articles. So, this was an area where I could bring some expertise.

My second engagement for Armadillocon 41 was less well grounded but even more fun for me. I proposed a talk on “The Future of Crime and Punishment.” My degrees are in criminology and social science and I have a couple of peer reviewed publications, but not the depth of numismatics and I am not a retired FBI guy, just a retired security guard. However, I was placed on a panel to game the robbing of a space station, “The Perfect Heist: Crime in the 23rd Century.” (Stina Leicht moderated with help from David Afrarishad, Rob Rogers, Michael Bracken, GoH Rebecca Roanhorse and me, the wheelman.) We got away with it.



Massive Constellations of Artificial Satellites: What if They  Were Natural? 

Western Shoot-Out: The Virginian versus Bonanza 

Viewing Mars 

Regimental Public Affairs Officer 


Tuesday, August 9, 2022

Armadillocon 44: Day 3

Hard science topics, especially on space exploration, are always a panel or a presentation at Armadillocon. 

“Space Tries to Kill You” (7 August 1100 HRS) featured moderator William Frank, NASA Chief Training Officer, backed up by panelists Alan J. Porter, Marina Lostetter, Avery Parks, Dantzel Cherry, and Stina Leicht with lots of audience interaction. He said that there would be no Kobayashi Maru an unwinnable scenario that requires reprogramming the computer to win. Instead, Bill Frank read scenarios, and then first the panelists and finally the audience offered their solutions to the emergencies. Throughout, Frank congratulated everyone on our clear thinking and encouraged us to apply to NASA.

You try to land on an asteroid and the surface rebounds coming up to meet you. (This is based on the recent discovery that some asteroids are not solid.)

There was a call for drones.
Frank said that orbiting is not possible but station-keeping is.
Another problem is that our billionaire boss who funded the mission scrimped on the budget and left out something we need now.
There was more discussion as the panel talked out this first exercise.

You wake up and smell smoke.

  1. Alert the crew.
  2. Call Mission Control.
  3. Locate the source and open the vent to vacuum.
  4. [etc.]
  5. [etc.[
  6.  Cut off power to the source
  7. Get a portable vacuum cleaner because that will show the flow of smoke from its origin.
  8. Push the FIRE alarm.
  9. Leave. Close (open) (seal) all vents. Shut down the module.
  10. Do not fight the fire.

Fire hangs in a sphere because there is no gravity. (I did not shout out that this has been known since 1857 and John Leonard Riddell’s “Voyage to the Moon.”


11.    There are two smoke masks for the crew.

12.    Troubleshoot the problem.

Among the crew were two millionaire space tourists and it was suggested with some humor that perhaps we did not need to alert them. In fact, said William Frank, you can assume that everyone has been trained in all procedures. So, consider them part of the crew. 

You are in a standard capsule (Apollo, Soyuz, Boeing Starliner, etc.). You have failure to separate from the booster. 

After much questioning for details and suggestions that were rejected as unworkable, we were told to abandon the crew module, get into the capsule, separate, and abandon the failed booster and module. 

Space capsule in two stages for crew.
I provide this here and now to help visualize
the problem.
There was no PowerPoint.

Bill Frank said that your priorities are:

  1. Crew safety.
  2. Vehicle safety.
  3. The mission.

Several times, it was suggested that our billionaire boss cut corners. In the final scenario, Stina Leicht said that our boss was a libertarian so our safety was not his  concern. Personally, I thought that was disingenuous. Libertarians join the rants against crony capitalism and the incompetent narcissists who rake in the loot from what was classically called “rent-seeking” and in the case of the Former President was literally and truly rent-seeking from artful deals involving eminent domain. 

Other Panels and Break-out Sessions


Search Engine Optimization for Writers and Artists (12:00 Noon. Matthew Bey Moderator with Porter, Hardwick, Chang, and Sarath, all with SEO street cred.) I took a lot of notes. When I tried it the next morning, nothing worked. Apparently, Google Blogger works very differently than WordPress. I could follow none of the pathing. One thing I can do is go back and put alt text descriptions in all of the illustrations. I never cared if this blog was popular. I get paid to write for others. Here I write for myself. After 11 years, I have had over 424,000 page views mostly in the USA with occasional spikes from Russia, India and China; and yet only seven followers. 


Ask an Archaeologist with Dr. Betsy Bevis. (2:00 PM – back on civilian time). Prof. Bevis’s specialty is classical archaeology, the Greeks, Romans, and their contextual civilizations. It is an area that I know well enough having written a dozen articles about classical and archaic numismatics for The Celator. She was informative, enlightening, engaging, and lively. She exposed errors in popular media such as The Mummy and she spoke candidly though carefully about the relationships that are subjected to trial by ordeal on a dig. (It can cost you your marriage, your career, and your friendships.) During her presentation, Dr. Bevis did have some problem with environmental noise impacting her hearing but we all worked with her on that and no one was left out. 


Howard Waldrop: A Fireside Chat with Mr. National Treasure (15:00 hours).

We all enjoyed his flowing monologue across many streams of thought and experience about how books become movies (or not). “People ask me how I’m doing. Hell, I’m in assisted living and they let me out once in a while to do things like this, you know, so that’s it…. Now, speaking of Felicia Day, as I was saying awhile ago…”



Elon Musk and the Audacity of Entrepreneurship 

Virgin Galactic VX01 and VX03 

Ayn Rand and Star Trek 

“Star Trek: Discovery” and the Conflict of Values 


Monday, August 8, 2022

Armadillocon 44 Part 2

The convention lost two of its founders, Willie Siros and Joe W. Bratcher III and memorials were held to celebrate both of them. Willie Siros was also a founder of FACT the Fandom Association of Central Texas. FACT is the engine of creation and administration for Armadillocon. His bookstore was Adventures in Crime and Space. Sara Felix’s tribute was posted here: Joe Bratcher owned Malvern Books, a cornerstone of Austin culture and a solid supporter of the convention. 

6 August 14:00 HRS (The show guide really is in military time.) Tiara Workshop. Artist Sarah Felix. Impressed with the tiaras that she bestowed on the guests of honor during the opening ceremony, I was hoping to make something that Aragorn might wear but that was not the kind of identical kits that we got. I left and went to the dealer’s room. Laurel worked on hers but brought it home incomplete. This was definitely a waste of $50 leaving us with unwanted bric-a-brac cheaper than Hobby Lobby or Michael’s. 


I returned to the Dealers Room for a couple of hours, though I still only met about half of the dealers because of our own attenuated schedule. 


Pick a Little, Talk a Little: The Art of Lockpicking by Tex Thompson (1600 HRS).

Cowgirl shows how to open a lock with a credit card.
Tex Thompson loids a lock.
How to open a lock with a credit card.

Back in 2019, Tex Thompson moderated a panel on how to moderate panels. I learned a lot from that session about working either side of the dais. Tex missed last year’s con and I missed her. This year she was back with a new career as a locksmith. (Laurel and I have been locksporters since we lived in Ann Arbor. Here in Austin, I donated several mechanisms to their trove and they awarded Laurel a pair of handcuffs.) Tex Thompson’s presentation was a show-and-tell with hands-on cut-aways from the 19th through 21st centuries. She covered the fallacies in cinema and the tools of the trade including rakes, bumping, and snappers. She touched on some of the forensics that reveal when a lock has been picked. We had a good time and helped her schlep her gear back to her car. 

Fannish Feud. (1700 HRS). Our friend, Kurt Baty, was on the fan side. We never watched Family Feud but the rules were easy enough with the pivot being that the answers came from a poll of the convention. So, they were not necessarily right and you have to guess what “most” people might have said. Name a vampire… Name a fan artist … What was the fishing boat in Jaws? … etc. The fans won. 


The Future of Identity in SF (1900 HRS). After a one-hour hiatus, the convention picked up again. I was really looking forward to this. 


Much of the discussion here was about the distinction between artificial intelligence (parking a car) and artificial general intelligence (being “human” or something like that). Stina Leicht pointed out that historically, people have modeled the mind with the technology of the times from fluids and humors to clockworks to computers but the mind is not any of those. 

Ryan Leslie mentioned “evolutionary compensation” but did not extend that thread. (See: “Compensatory evolution means that a locus will evolve an effect size in a different direction to (i.e., negatively correlated with) the effect sizes at other loci.” NIH here.)


John Hormor Jacobs alluded to “Midworld” an AI that makes art. (See “Midjourney’s Enthralling AI art generator goes live for everyone” at PC World here.). He then reminded us of the truism that good fiction is a way to consider the human condition and the interesting question about AI is what it says about us. How would perfect memory affect your relationship with your spouse? (Laurel and I only exchanged sidelong glances even though we wanted to elbow each other in the ribs and chortle “har-har-har.”) Jacobs said, “A genie is no good to a writer unless it is let out of the bottle.” 


Eva L. Elasique (self-identified Filipina-American queer feminist) said that her background as a biologist (studied; no degrees) led her to consider epiphenomenal alien intelligences. That sounded deep at the time. However: “Epiphenomenalism is the view that mental events are caused by physical events in the brain, but have no effects upon any physical events. … Huxley (1874), who held the view, compared mental events to a steam whistle that contributes nothing to the work of a locomotive.Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Epiphenomenalism" here


Jacobs and Leitz exchanged comments on gender fluidity in a future that lets you change it like clothing and how that could lead to species fluidity. Leitz pointed out that we now know that in the sterile environment of a space station, your immune system has not much to do and you develop odd allergies, such as to plastic. (That general claim is known though I did not find a reference to plastic. See NASA Human Research Aug 18, 2014 "Study Reveals Immune System is Dazed and Confused During Spaceflight" here.) 


Moderator Hilary Ritz asked, “What are the qualities that you see as essentially human and that you would not want to lose?” John Hormor Jacobs offered kindness. 


How Near-Future Science Fiction has Changed (2000 HRS) Moderator David Afsharirad asked, “What is the most disruptive technology that has turned science fiction on its head?” 

  • For Rhonda Eudaly it is cellphones. She added that we have to accept that we will not know what the next big thing is. 
  • For Alan J. Porter it is miniaturization. 
  • William Ledbetter looked to 3-D printing. 
  • John K. Gibbons pointed out that the cellphone became “a layer of concern” because of the Internet. 
  • Bill Frank (NASA chief training officer) offered the brain-machine interface that allows prosthetics and much else, adding that the pilot of a craft will soon become a redundant component. 

David Afsharirad asked, “Is there something, a speculative element, that must be in a story set 40 to 50 years in the future?”

  • Alan J. Porter suggested artificial intelligence. 
  • Rhonda Eudaly said that we have abandoned the reality of Covid. It is no longer part of a story in mainstream entertainment, adding that more pandemics seem inevitable. 
  • John K. Gibbons added that previous pandemics lasted up to 50 years.
  • Alan J. Porter came back to machine learning and Siri-Alexa voice interfaces that will make keyboards obsolete. 
  • Bill Frank looked to algorithmic conditioning, learning the interface, being conditioned by the algorithms around you adding that it is informative to watch a two-year old learn a device like a cellphone or pad. 
  • John K. Gibbons said that climate change has gone beyond the centerpiece of the plot to being a fundamental condition. “It is kind of crazy if you ignore it.”
  •  Returning to nanotechnology, Ledbetter underscored new material coatings and changes in the human body.

David Afsharirad asked, “What do we obsess over when predicting the future?” 

  • John K. Gibbons replied that it is not the technological projection of space travel but that the extrapolation of it has not aligned with the reality of space exploitation back then. 
  • Turning on that point, Alan J. Porter said, “… but now we have Heinlein’s The Man Who Sold the Moon.” 

“What could we not see coming?” Fifty years ago everyone smoked cigarettes and the roles of women were still in the  traditional molds. As the discussion traveled along the table, Rhonda Eudaly said, “ It’s not the nanotech. It’s the people.”


The End of Capitalism (2100 HRS) Let’s discuss writers who defy the saying, “It’s easier to imagine the end of the world than the end of capitalism.” What are your favorite anti-capitalist works of SFFH? How have you experimented with world building in your own writing?” (Rick Klaw moderator with Martha Wells, Donna Dechen Birdwell, William Ledbetter, Clayton Hackett, Sim Kern.) 


Referring often to Ursula K. LeGuin’s The Dispossed, not only did none of them actually answer the question with examples from their own publications in which they imagined non-capitalist economies or societies without economics, all of the anti-capitalist clichés were deeply infused with ignorance. For me, leading the list was the narrative that we evolved from barter to money and the best alternative to money would be a return to barter. Anthropologist (and anarcho-communist) David Graeber (Debt: The First 5000 Years) asserted that we have no example of any society evolving from barter to money but rather barter is what people resort to when money fails. 


Another rant on the evils of capitalist colonialism was launched from allusion to England’s primogeniture laws which sent younger sons out into the world to exploit people. I must point out that they were not Dutch capitalists floating bonds or Jewish moneylenders charging interest. The British colonialists were the best that could be offered by the kind of society all of the writers seemed to want: traditional, landed, family-based, community-based, altruistic, feudal. In fact, the point was made explicitly that medieval lords cared for their serfs and took care of them and the serfs only worked about 140 days a year. William Ledbetter did note as an aside that of course they did not have a lot of material wealth.


I could go on forever. (I presented "The Future of Money: Beyond Solars and Credits" at Armadillocon 41.) At the end, Clayton Hackett suggested that an innovative monetary medium would lose value over time so that you are forced to spend it in order to keep the economy going. I understand the concept of fiat inflation. I only fail to see the innovation.




The Future of Money 

Mere Gold is Not Enough: Hayek’s Denationalisation 

Numismatics: The Standard of Proof in Economics 

Worker’s Paradise Promised an End to Money 


Sunday, August 7, 2022

Armadillocon 44 Day 1 and Day 2

The 2022 convention was almost back to pre-Covid glory. The first night and the second day and night were productive for us. Different from our previous attendance, Laurel and I did not split up for separate break-outs because fewer options were offered. 


Program book cover show sad woman holding an armadillo.
Program cover by
Lauren Raye Show
with Sara Felix
We both enjoyed the welcoming session (technically three hours into the con). Master-of-ceremonies Cass Morris stole the show, and the guests of honor—Darcie Little Badger, Ellen Kleges, Lauren Raye Snow, and Fonda Lee—were extroverted and engaging. You do not always get that with writers. (Snow was the Guest Artist.)

We spent an hour chatting with convention panelist Kurt Baty and his friends. Kurt and I met in 2012 in another context and it was Kurt who finally talked me in to going to Armadillocon 39. He is one of the long engaged fans and has been the Fan Guest of Honor. My impression of science fiction conventions was informed by two trekker cons. Kurt kept insisting that this convention is for writers, artists, and publishers and he was right. 


Laurel and I then attended “Fighting and F*cking: Writing Action Scenes of All Kinds.” For us, Armadillocon provides insights into the creation and production of literature, both books and cinema. Laurel’s genre is mystery; mine is science fiction. She is an avid fan; I am not. We got some general pointers for carrying action. Talking this out on the way home, we agreed that not every conflict of values is resolved with a fist fight. Also, their theories of sexual enounter were somewhat lacking given that the many aliens of science fiction and fantasy could include fertilization requiring five different participants, one of them non-sentient. Just sayin’… all they came up with was two people (humans) fighting or fucking, with more pointers for the combat than the love, to say nothing of how the one can become the other, as with Mr. & Mrs. Smith.

Sara Felix places crowns she made on the heads of guest speakers.
Guests of Honor receive tiaras.

Day 2 started late because our cat, Sunny, had a veterinary appointment. I spent the first hour in the dealer’s room. As important as the break-outs are, the dealers pay for the show and many of them are publishers or self-publishing authors. 


Ryan C. Bradley – Author of Saint’s Blood. For promoting his book, he bought pens that look like syringes with blood. They only cost 66 cents each on Amazon. He said that this book took five years to write and was inspired by his great uncle, Saint Rafael Guízar y Valencia, who was canonized in 2006. 


Kristina Downs, Ph. D. – representing the Texas Folklore Society which is now at Tarleton State University. Founded in Austin in 1909, they moved to Nagodoches in 1971 before adopting their new home in 2020. The good professor told me that folklore has no boundaries. It can be stories, music, crafts, or cooking; and it takes no special training to participate. Folklore includes the family saga: how they came to Texas. 


John Baltisberger of Madness Heart Press has 65 books in print and is looking to cut down on that. However, he is not abandoning his author Susan Snyder, a marine biologist who wrote the Encyclopedia Sharkploitanica and other books about all things shark.

For snapshots of dealers behind their tables with books.
Snyder, Downs, Baltisberger, and Snyder

Gretchen Rix and Roxanne Rix – author Gretchen and publisher Roxanne do business as Rix Café Texican. They sell their books through Amazon, contracting the cover art from Streetlight Graphics ( They have over 20 titles across several genres.

Allan Kaster – editor and publisher was someone I recognized from a previous convention when he was selling off the last of his books-on-tape audio cassettes. (He has been in business a long time.) 


J. Darrell Mitchell – was selling a book to Laurel when I approached. I remembered him, also, because he autographs his books with a very nice drawing of a bug of your choice. I got a scorpion a couple of years ago and Laurel got a firefly for her purchase. 

Four more dealers behind their tables with books.
Rix, Kaster, Jacobs and Mitchell. Freddie Jacobs who was holding the fort
for his father, John Hormor Jacobs,
who was at one of the many panels he served on. 

Armadillocon 42 (2020) was cancelled for Covid-19. We attended Armadillocon 43 last year, 15-17 October, 2021, but I did not write it up. Recovering from Covid-19, the convention was much downsized and the presentations were less than stellar. Reviewing the schedule now, the only two that I remember were “25 Things You Didn't Know About James Bond” by Alan J. Porter on the first night and “Creating Realistic Medicine in SF/F” by Jen Finelli, MD on the last day. Even that as published (follow menu options from was different from my memory because I remember a different person speaking with great emotion about her recent experience as a combat medic. 




Armadillocon 39

Armadillocon 40 Part 2 

Armadillocon 41 

Armadillocon 41 Day 3: Dealers Make the Show